1. D. Pimentel and M. Pimentel, Food, Energy and Society, 3rd ed. (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2008).
2. G. Eshel and P. A. Martin, “Diet, Energy and Global Warming,” Earth Interactions, 10 (2006), 1–17.
3. D. Pimentel and M. Pimentel, “Sustainability of Meat-Based and Plant-Based Diets and the Environment,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78 (2003), 660S–63S.
4. M . Jacobson, Six Arguments for a Greener Diet: How a More Plant-Based Diet Could Save Your Health and the Environment (Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2006).
5. R. Heinberg, “Threats of Peak Oil to the Global Food Supply” (Dublin, Ireland: FEASTA Conference, What Will We Eat When the Oil Runs Out?, 2005), http://www.richardheinberg.com/museletter/159, accessed Jan. 29, 2008.
6. Pacific Institute, “Bottled Water and Energy: Getting to 17 Million Barrels” (Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute, 2007), http://www.pacinst.org/topics/integrity_of_science/case_studies/bottled_..., accessed Feb. 11, 2008.
7. J. Dukes, “Burning Buried Sunshine: Human Consumption of Ancient Solar Energy,” Climatic Change, 61 (2003), 31–44.
8. U.S. Department of Agriculture, “High Fructose Corn Syrup: Estimated Number of Per Capita Calories Consumed Daily, by Calendar Year,” Table 52 of Sugar and Sweeteners Yearbook Tables (Washington, DC: Economic Research Service, USDA, 2008), http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/sugar/data.htm, accessed Feb. 11, 2008.
9. T. Jones, “Using Contemporary Archaeology and Applied Anthropology to Understand Food Loss in the American Food System” (Tucson, AZ: Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology, University of Arizona, 2004), http://www.communitycompost.org/info/usafood.pdf, accessed Jan. 29, 2008.
10. Eshel and Martin (2006).
11. EnviroSax, “Plastic Bag Facts–USA” (Torrance, CA: Envirosax, 2007), http://usa.envirosax.com/pages/plastic-bag-facts.php, accessed Jan. 29, 2008.
12. A. Drewnowski, et al., “Disparities in Obesity Rates: Analysis by ZIP Code Area,” Social Science and Medicine, 65 (Dec. 2007), 2458–63.
13. C. L. Ogden, et al., “Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999–2004,” JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 295 (2006), 1549–55. See also National Center for Health Statistics, “Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adults: United States, 2003–2004.” (Hyattsville, MD: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services, 2007), http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/overweight/overwght_a..., accessed Jan. 29, 2008.
14. R. Conniff, “Counting Carbons,” Discover (Aug. 2005), 54–61.
15. We took the average carbon emissions from the range given by J. Cascio, “Cheeseburger Footprint” (San Francisco, CA: Open the Future, 2007), http://www.openthefuture.com/cheeseburger_CF.html; accessed Feb. 12, 2008.
16. A. Lappé and B. Terry, Grub: Ideas for an Urban Organic Kitchen (New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2006).
17. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Citing ‘Dangerous Increase’ in Deaths, HHS Launches New Strategies against Overweight Epidemic. Study Shows Poor Diet, Inactivity Close to becoming Leading Preventable Cause of Death” (Washington, DC: HHS, 2004), http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2004pres/20040309.html, accessed Jan. 29, 2008.
18. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, et al., eds. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), Fig SPM.3, http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg1.htm , accessed May 8, 2008.
19. P. Jones, “Global Temperature Record,” Climate Research Unit Information Sheet (Norwich: University of East Anglia, 2007), http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/info/warming/, accessed Oct. 30, 2007.
20. A couple of papers on fingerprints can be found at http://www.nature.com/nature/links/030102/030102–3.html and a climate fingerprints hot map at http://www.climatehotmap.org/, accessed May 1, 2008.
21. The Grosser Aletsch Glacier in Switzerland, the longest glacier in the Alps, has retreated 8,500 feet (2,600 m) since 1980, and the Rongbut Glacier, which drains the north side of Mount Everest into Tibet, has been retreating 65 feet (20 m) per year over the last few decades. In 2006, the Swiss Glacier survey of 85 glaciers found 84 retreating and 1 advancing. Similarly, of the glaciers in the Italian Alps, only about a third were in retreat in 1980, while by 1999, 89 percent of these glaciers were retreating. In 2005, the Italian Glacier Commission found that 123 glaciers were retreating, 1 advancing and 6 stationary, http://www.glaciology.ethz.ch/messntz/glacierlist.html, accessed May 1, 2008.
22. On the Pacific island of Tonga, the sea level appears to have risen about 0.3 inches (8 mm) a year over the last fifteen years. Although this may not seem like much, during times of storms, low-lying islands are expected to see an increased threat of flooding within the next few decades. Sea level rise is not constant, and depends on local variations in ocean temperature and winds. Further information on Pacific Islands and sea level can be found at http://www.bom.gov.au/pacificsealevel/index.shtml, accessed May 1, 2008.
23. C. Parmesan and G. Yohe, “A Globally Coherent Fingerprint of Climate Impacts across Natural Systems,” Nature, 421 (2003), 37–42.
24. Deforestation has two impacts on climate. First, because trees take up carbon dioxide, their removal ultimately acts to increase CO2 levels in the atmosphere and this leads to warming of the planet. However, deforestation also makes the land surface more reflective to sunlight (when trees are present, the surface is green; after trees are cut, the surface is gray or white), and this by itself would cool the planet. Further details on deforestation and its impact on climate can be found in chapter 2.5 of the IPCC report. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, et al., eds. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2007).
25. So, if carbon dioxide concentrations are 280 parts per million (ppm), then out of a million air molecules, 280 would be carbon dioxide.
26. IPCC, Solomon, et al. (2007).
27. Using the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, 2000, found at http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/sres/emission/index.htm, one can use the “business as usual” A1FI scenario to project how carbon dioxide will change over the coming century.
28. IPCC, Solomon, et al. (2007), adapted from Fig FAQ2.1.
1. D. Montgomery, Dirt: the Erosion of Civilizations (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007).
2. T. Jones, “The Scoop on Dirt,” E: the Environmental Magazine, 17 (Sept./Oct. 2006), 26–39.
3. C. Jones, “Carbon, Air and Water: Is That All We Need?” Managing the Carbon Cycle: The Katanning Workshop: 2007, http://www.amazingcarbon.com/Workshop%20Papers.htm, accessed Jan. 29, 2008.
4. M ontgomery (2007).
6. M . Jacobson, Six Arguments for a Greener Diet: How a More Plant-Based Diet Could Save Your Health and the Environment (Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2006).
9. M . Jacobson, “From a Global Warming Diet to a Greener One” (The Anniston Star, 2006), http://www.annistonstar.com/opinion/2006/as-columns-0915-0-6i14x2459.htm, accessed Dec. 7, 2006.
10. Montgomery (2007).
11. Fossil fuels are a nonrenewable resource, and limited reserves exist on our planet. Estimates vary as to how many years each energy source will be readily available at an acceptable economic cost, and range from ten to fifty years for oil, thirty-five to eighty years for natural gas, and one hundred to two hundred years for coal. 228 apendix apendix 229
12. T. Searchinger, et al., “Use of U. S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases through Emissions from Land-Use Change,” Science, 319 (Feb. 2008), 1238–40.
13. P. Singer and J. Mason, The Way We Eat: Why Our Food Choices Matter (Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2006).
14. C. Bacon, “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?,” World Development, 33 (2005), 497–511.
15. Montgomery (2007).
16. Jacobson, Six Arguments, (2006).
17. T. Jones (2006).
18. C. Feller, et al., “Charles Darwin, Earthworms and the Natural Sciences: Various Lessons from Past to Future,” Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 99 (Oct. 2003), 29–49.
19. The data on Mauna Loa constitute the longest record of direct measurements of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Data from the Scripps Institute of Oceanography are in blue and from NOAA in red. An updated (every month) figure from NOAA can be seen at: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/co2_data_mlo.html.
20. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, et al., eds. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
1. C. Rosenzweig and D. Hillel, “Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Food Supply,” Consequences, 1 (Summer 1995), http://www.gcrio.org/consequences/summer95/agriculture.html, accessed May 1, 2008.
2. L. Ziska, “Evaluation of Yield Loss in Field Sorghum from a C3 and C4 Weed with Increasing CO2,” Weed Science, 51 (2003), 914–18.
3. The use of tree rings, ice cores, coral reefs, and even historical records such as the time of grape harvest all provide information about the past climate. Information from the NOAA paleoclimatology division provides a good introduction. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/paleo.html, accessed May 8, 2008.
4. The last ice age was caused by a decline (2 watts/m2) in the surface radiation budget due to orbital variations and feedbacks associated with carbon dioxide and ice sheets. See chapter 6 of the 2007 IPCC report and references therein for details. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, et al., eds. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg1.htm, accessed May 8, 2008.
5. These data come from the Vostok ice-core temperature reconstruction. You can look at the raw data yourself if you are curious to see how temperature has changed over the last 400,000 years, http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/trends/temp/vostok/vostok.1999.temp.dat, or for a good plot of temperature and carbon dioxide over the last 650,000 years, see Figure TS.1. from the 2007 IPCC report. IPCC, Solomon, et al. (2007).
6. Union of Concerned Scientists, Agriculture: Growing Concern: A Global Warming Impacts Video” (Union of Concerned Scientists, 2007), http://www.climatechoices.org/impacts_agriculture/, accessed Aug. 24, 2007.
7. Decadal averages of observations are shown for the period 1906 to 2005 (black line) and blue-shaded bands show the range for simulations from five climate models using only the natural forcings due to solar activity and volcanoes. The red-shaded bands show the range from fourteen climate models using both natural and human forcings. Forcings refer to processes that will act to either warm or cool the planet such as changes in the sun’s radiation or changes in the concentration of a gas like carbon dioxide. Forcings can either be natural (e.g., volcanoes that act to cool the planet, or increases in the sun’s radiation that would warm the planet) or human-produced (e.g., increases in carbon dioxide that will warm the planet, or increases in aerosols that will cool the planet). IPCC, Solomon, et al. (2007), adapted from Figure SPM.4.
8. These results were produced using fourteen different climate models from international research groups in support of the 2007 IPCC report (Solomon, et al). Further and related details can be found in the FAQ chapter under FAQ 8.1: “How reliable are the models used to make projections of future climate change?” and FAQ 9.2: “Can the warming of the 20th century be explained by natural variability?” 9. S. Postel, Pillar of Sand: Can the Irrigation Miracle Last? A Worldwatch Book. (New York: W.W. Norton, 1999).
10. R. Heinberg, “Threats of Peak Oil to the Global Food Supply “ (Dublin, Ireland: FEASTA Conference, What Will We Eat When the Oil Runs Out?, 2005), http://www.richardheinberg.com/museletter/159, accessed Jan. 29, 2008.
11. S. Kipe, “An Economic Overview of Horticultural Products in the United States” (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Horticultural and Tropical Products Division, 2004), http://www.fas.usda.gov/htp/Presentations2004/An%20Economic%20Overview%20of%20HTP%20-%20(08-04).pdf, accessed May 1, 2008.
12. M . Rosengrant, et al., Global Water Outlook to 2025: Averting an Impending Crisis (Washington, D.C.: IFPRI and IWMI, 2002).
13. J. Cribb, “Can Australian Soil Science Save the World?” (National Conference of the Australian Soil Science Society, 2006).
14. The IPCC was established in 1988 through the United Nations Environment Program and the World Meteorological Organization to assess the risk of climate change caused by human activities. This international body produces reports every five to seven years that are written by climate change experts from around the world. The IPCC Climate Change: Fourth Assessment Report was released in 2007 and can be found at http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/assessments-reports.htm, accessed May 8, 2008.
15. The development of emission scenarios and their storylines is an interesting and somewhat complicated exercise, as described in the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios found at http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/sres/emission/index.htm, accessed May 8, 2008.
16. Figure 5 comes from the summary for policy makers from the 2007 IPCC report Solomon, et al. (2007).
17. IPCC, Solomon, et al. (2007).
19. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, et al., eds., (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
20. J. C. Zuckerman, “An Uncertain Harvest,” Plenty, (April/May 2007), 44–53. 21. L. H. Ziska, et al., “Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of Selected Wheat Varieties Released Since 1903 to Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: Can Yield Sensitivity to Carbon Dioxide Be a Factor
in Wheat Performance?” Global Change Biology, 10 (2004), 1810–19.
1. A good summary of the observed twentieth-century changes and the predictions for the twenty-first century are given in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Summary for Policymakers section of the report. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, et al., eds.
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), http://ipcc-wg1.ucar.edu/wg1/wg1-report.html.
2. B. L. Preston and R. N. Jones, “Climate Change Impacts on Australia and the Benefits of Early Action to Reduce Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions” (2006), http://www.csiro.au/files/files/p6fy.pdf, accessed Oct. 31, 2007.
3. Level 5 restrictions include no watering of lawns, limited watering of established gardens on certain days and during certain times, and no filling of pools unless certain other water saving measures have been taken. The Web site of the Brisbane City Council http://www.brisbane.qld.gov.au contains more information about Brisbane’s water situation, accessed May 8, 2008.
4. At present, there is debate within the scientific community about the connections between tropical cyclones and global warming. While some studies show an increase in the intensity of tropical cyclones over the past few decades, others attribute this to observational techniques and
230 apendix apendix 231 instrumentation. Two good sites devoted to the science are http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/links. hurricanes.htm and http://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/~tk/glob_warm_hurr.html.
5. IPCC, Solomon, et al. (2007).
6. T. Kosatsky, “The 2003 European Heat Waves,” Euro Surveillance 2005, 10 (2005), 148–49.
7. P. A. Stott, et al., “Human Contribution to the European Heatwave of 2003,” Nature, 432 (Dec. 2, 2004), 610–614.
8. B. Wuethrich, “How Climate Change Alters Rhythms of the Wild” Science, 287 (2000), 793–95.
9. C. Gjerdrum, et al., “Tufted Puffin Reproduction Reveals Ocean Climate Variability,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100 (2003), 9377–82.
10. J. Larsen, “Bottled Water Boycotts: Back-to-the-Tap Movement Gains Momentum,” Eco-Economy Updates (Earth Policy Institute, 2007), http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2007/Update68.htm, accessed May 8, 2008.
11. E. Horng, “Ditching Bottled Water to Go Green,” (ABC News, 2007), http://abcnews.go.com/WN/GlobalWarming/story?id=3351812&page=1, accessed Jan. 25, 2008.
12. S. Casey, “Our Oceans Are Turning into Plastic . . . Are We?” Best Life: Your Guide for Better Living (2007), http://www.bestlifeonline.com/cms/publish/health-fitness/Our_oceans_are_..., accessed Jan. 25, 2008.
13. E. D. Olson, “Bottled Water: Pure Drink or Pure Hype” (New York: Natural Resources Defense Council, 1999), http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/bw/bwinx.asp, accessed Sept. 25, 2007.
14. V . Standley, “Picking Plastic? The Green Guide Cracks the Codes,” AScribe: The Public Interest Newswire (2006), http://www.ascribe.org/cgi-bin/behold.pl?ascribeid=20050127.113349&time=..., accessed Jan. 25, 2008.
15. Olson (1999).
16. P. Stec, “Buckle-Up Bug Campaign, Ford Motor Company.” As told to L. Stec in Portola Valley on Sept. 28, 2007.
17. D. Marty, “Empowered Shopping: Tips from the Green Side of the Aisle,” E: the Environmental Magazine, 8 (May/June 2007), 54–55.
18. International Bottled Water Association, “Beverage Marketing’s 2006 Market Report Findings,” (2007), http://www.bottledwater.org/public/Stats_2005.doc, accessed Jan. 25, 2008.
19. The report by N. Jungbluth, “Comparison of the Environmental Impact of Tap Water vs. Bottled Mineral Water,” (Swiss Gas and Water Association, 2005) was used in these calculations, http:www.esu-services.ch/download/jungbluth-2006-LCA-water.pdf, accessed Jan. 25, 2008.
20. This calculation assumes that 4.2MJ of energy is used to produce one liter of bottled water (plastic bottle and domestic water) (Jungbluth 2005) and that a car uses 0.3 gallons of gas per hour when idling (Natural Resources Canada, Office of Energy Efficiency: http://www.oee.nrcan.gc.ca/
transportation/personal/idling.cfm?attr=8), accessed May 1, 2008.
21. A. Carlsson-Kanyama, et al., “Food and Life Cycle Energy Inputs: Consequences of Diet and Ways to Increase Efficiency,” Ecological Economics (2003), 293–307. See also Jungbluth (2005).
1. R. Pirog and A. Benjamin, “Checking the Food Odometer: Comparing Food Miles for Local Versus Conventional Produce Sales to Iowa Institutions” (2003), http://www.leopold.iastate.edu/pubs/staff/files/food_travel072103.pdf; accessed Jan. 25, 2008.
2. B. Kingsolver, Animal, Vegetable, Miracle (New York: Harper Collins, 2007).
3. J. E. McWilliams, “Food That Travels Well,” New York Times (Aug. 16, 2007), http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/06/opinion/06mcwilliams.html?_r=1&oref=sl..., accessed Jan. 25, 2008.
4. IPCC, Aviation and the Global Atmosphere: A Special Report of IPCC Working Groups I and III in Collaboration with the Scientific Assessment Panel to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, J. E. Penner, et al., (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
5. A. Carlsson-Kanyama, et al., “Food and Life Cycle Energy Inputs: Consequences of Diet and Ways to Increase Efficiency,” Ecological Economics (2003), 293–307.
6. Great Britain Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), The Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development: Final Report Produced for DEFRA (Didcot, UK: AEA Technology Environment, 2005), http://statistics.defra.gov.uk/esg/reports/foodmiles/default.asp,
accessed Jan. 25, 2008.
7. C. Saunders, et al., “Food Miles: Comparative Energy/Emissions Performance of New Zealand’s Agriculture Industry,” Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU), Lincoln University research report number 285 (2006), http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/story_images/2328_RR285_s9760.pdf, accessed Jan. 25, 2008.
8. We used Carlsson-Kanyama’s (2003) “Food and Life Cycle Energy Inputs” to estimate the energy required to grow cherries.
9. J. Braun and D. Hillman, “The Federal Food and Farm Bill,” The Snail, 2 (Summer 2007), 15.
10. T. LaSalle and P. Hepperly, Regenerative 21st Century Farming: A Solution to Global Warming (Kutztown, PA: The Rodale Institute, 2008), 3.
11. Data and interpretation provided by Dr. William Horwath, from the Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis.
12. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) is used to represent the warming potential of all greenhouse gases (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O, etc.) in a single value.
13. U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2003 (Dept. of Energy, 2005), http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/environment/057303.pdf, accessed Jan. 25, 2008.
14. The data used for this figure come from the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) version 4.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2007). Available at http://cait.wri.org/, accessed Jan 25, 2008.
15. H. Steinfeld, et al., Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options (Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2006), http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.htm, accessed Oct. 30, 2007.
16. M . Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin Press, 2006).
1. H. Steinfeld, et al., Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options (Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2006), http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.htm, accessed Oct. 30, 2007.
3. S. Lang, “New Study Reopens Debate: Are Omnivores Better for the Environment Than Vegetarians?” Cornell Chronicle (Cornell University, 2007), http://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_7575. cfm, accessed Feb. 14, 2008.
4. While varying estimates of agriculture-related emissions exist, this estimate is based on the contributions from livestock (16–18 percent) and plant-based agriculture (less than 5 percent) and serves as a lower bound.
5. H. Steinfeld, et al. (2006).
6. The term livestock generally refers to any domesticated animal such as cattle, sheep, pigs, and chickens that are raised for food or fiber. The estimates of livestock-related, greenhouse-gas emissions from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization show that the largest share of CO2 emissions comes from landuse changes associated primarily with deforestation caused by demand for feed grains and grazing land.
7. D. Pimentel and M. Pimentel, Food, Energy And Society, 3rd ed. (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2008).
8. See Holistic Management International, http://www.holisticmanagement.org, for further information on the scale of this farming practice.
9. These results come from personal communication with Louis Sukovaty at Crown S Ranch. His estimate of corn/hay-fed cattle yield per acre is from M. Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin Press, 2006).
10. P. Hepperly, “Organic Farming Response to Climate Change,” Pesticides and You, 27 (2007), 14–19. (This study was completed using row crops and not pastureland.)
11. Pollan (2006). 232 apendix apendix 233
12. K. Clancy, Greener Pastures: How Grass-fed Beef and Milk Contribute to Healthy Eating, Food and Environment (Union of Concerned Scientists, 2006), http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_environment/sustainable_food/greener-past..., accessed Sept. 5, 2007.
13. Mott Group, “Pasture-Based Livestock Research,” Programs and Activities of the C.S. Mott Group (Michigan State University, 2007), http://www.mottgroup.msu.edu/ProgramsActivities/PasturebasedLivestockRes..., accessed Feb. 14, 2008.
14. University of Maryland Center, “Omega-3 Acids” (2007), http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/omega-3_00316.htm, accessed May 23, 2008.
15. J. Robinson, “Health Benefits of Grass-Fed Products,” Eatwild.com, http://www.eatwild.com/healthbenefits.htm, accessed Feb. 11, 2008.
16. J. Robinson, Why Grassfed Is Best: The Surprising Benefits of Grassfed Meat, Eggs, and Dairy Products. (Vashion, WA: Vashion Island Press, 2000).
17. T. L. Stanton and D. Schutz, “Effect of Switching from High Grain to Hay Five Days Prior to Slaughter on Finishing Cattle Performance,” (Colorado State University, 2000), http://ansci.colostate.edu/files/renut/2000/pdf/tls002.pdf, accessed Feb. 14, 2008.
18. H. A. DeRamus, et al., “Methane Emissions of Beef Cattle on Forages: Efficiency of Grazing Management Systems,” Journal of Environmental Quality, 32 (2003), 269–277.
1. Dave Culp of Kiteship supplied this information.
2. This type of calculation is called a cradle-to-grave analysis, where the full life cycle of the product (development, design, production, and disposal) is considered in terms of environmental impact.
3. Estimates of the energy required to grow an apple are 8 MJ (megajoules, where 1 MJ = 106 joules) per kg. A. Carlsson-Kanyama, et al., “Food and Life Cycle Energy Inputs: Consequences of Diet and Ways to Increase Efficiency,” Ecological Economics (2003), 293–307.
4. For such electronic devices with an average consumer lifetime of about three years, the energy to power the device is probably only about 20 percent of the energy needed to make the device. E. Williams, “Energy Intensity of Computer Manufacturing,” Environmental Science and Technology, 38 (2004), 6166–6174.
5. Many countries including the United States and Canada have laws prohibiting electronic components going into landfills because of toxic residues that may leach into the groundwater, so a company must dismantle, recycle, and dispose of this device properly. For more information about the chemicals used in the electronics industry and what happens to the products after use, see the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition Web site at http://svtc.etoxics.org/, accessed May 8, 2008.
6. Our estimate uses the energy analysis of Williams 2004 who estimates the energy required to produce a personal computer. We then scaled these estimates either by weight or by cost for an iPod classic (weight 140 grams; price $250). These estimates have a large uncertainty based both on the validity of our assumptions and also the analysis of Williams.
7. E. Williams (2004).
8. This experiment is not intended to criticize the Apple iPod, but rather to convey the idea of embedded energy and life-cycle analysis, where a product’s interaction with the environment is measured from cradle to grave. It should also be noted that although the estimate of energy required to make the iPod may seem high, the iPod is quite energy efficient in comparison to other electronic devices. In addition, it is also recognized that Apple as a company has a fairly progressive environmental policy for all their products (http://www.apple.com/environment/).
9. S. Bin and H. Dowlatabadi, “Consumer Lifestyle Approach to U.S. Energy Use and the Related CO2 Emissions,” Energy Policy, 33 (2005), 197–208.
10. The concept of cradle to cradle was popularized by William McDonough and Michael Braugart in their book Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things (New York: North Point Press, 2002) and suggests that design emulates the principles of nature where nothing is wasted, but everything is recycled and put back into the system for another use. The classic example is an apple tree, which appears to dump its waste of leaves and fruit every year, but ultimately this waste goes back into nature as food and habitat for other plants and animals.
11. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Waste Not, Want Not: Feeding the Hungry and Reducing Solid Waste through Food Recovery” (Washington, DC: US. EPA, 2007), http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/reduce/wastenot.htm, accessed Feb. 14, 2008.
12. Food Policy Institute, “Food Waste Management,” (State University of New Jersey Rutgers, 2002), http://www.foodpolicyinstitute.org/research/waste.html, accessed Sept. 3, 2007.
13. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Waste Reduction Model (WARM): Web-based Calculator,” (Washington, DC: U.S. EPA, 2006), http://epa.gov/climatechange/wycd/waste/calculators/Warm_home.html, accessed Feb. 14, 2008.
14. Coskata, “Advantages of the Coskata Process,” http://www.coskata.com/ProcessAdvantages.asp, accessed May 1, 2008.
15. From Paul Schmitt, master composter, Palo Alto, California.
1. K. Hamrick and K. Shelley, “How Much Time Do Americans Spend Preparing and Eating Food?” Amber Waves (USDA Economic Research Service, 2005), http://www.ers.usda.gov/AmberWaves/November05/DataFeature/, accessed Feb. 12, 2008.
2. U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2005, http://www.eia.doe.gov/iea/, accessed Nov. 1, 2007.
3. Initial estimates reported by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency show that in 2006 China overtook the United States as the largest emitter of greenhouse gases. For details see: http://www.mnp.nl/en/dossiers/Climatechange/moreinfo/Chinanowno1inCO2emi...
secondposition.html, accessed May 8, 2008.
1. North Americans commonly think about food energy in terms of “Calories.” By definition, a calorie of energy is actually quite small, so common practice is to refer to Calories in multiples of 1,000 or as kilocalories (kcal). It is also common practice to use the term, Calorie (with an uppercase ‘C’) to mean kcal, which we follow in this book. We note that most other countries report food energy in kilojoules, where 1 Calorie = 1kcal = 4.18 kilojoules (kJ).
2. The energy required to produce the food incorporates all aspects of growing, including farm machinery, irrigation, production, and application of fertilizers and pesticides.
3. In this case, energy intensity is defined as the ratio of energy required to produce the product divided by the amount of protein energy in the food. See D. Pimentel and M. Pimentel, Food, Energy and Society, 3rd ed. (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2008).
4. The calculation of carbon intensity includes the emissions associated with energy used to grow the food item, and any methane emissions associated with animal products. Nitrous oxide emissions due to fertilization of cropland have not been accounted for in this analysis and thus these calculations serve as a lower range for these intensities.
5. Figures for each food item come from estimates of Pimentel and Pimentel (2008). The input energy associated with each food item has been converted into CO2 emissions based on U.S. national emissions and energy-use statistics in a manner similar to that described in Eshel and Martin (2006). The agriculture-related methane or nitrous oxide emissions are also included through a conversion into CO2 equivalent using the procedure of G. Eshel and P. A. Martin, “Diet, Energy, and Global Warming,” Earth Interactions 10 (2006), 1–17. See also U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2003 (Dept. of Energy, 2004), http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/environment/057303.pdf, accessed Jan. 25, 2008.
6. There are significant uncertainties in these estimates depending on both the method of growing the food and on the methodology of calculating the emissions. For example, Pimentel (2008) finds that energy inputs may be reduced by up to 50 percent or more for free-range beef and sheep.
Comparisons with other published estimates of energy intensity can differ by less then 20 percent up to 200 percent or more as described by Carlsson-Kanyama (2003). 234 apendix apendix 235
7. The relatively large emissions from some fish products reflect the relatively large energy demands of long-distance voyages required for fishing particular species.
8. At present, studies offer differing conclusions regarding the energy and yield differences between conventional and organic agriculture, although consensus is found on the improved soil health and water quality associated with organic agriculture. See P. Maeder, et al., “Soil Fertility and Biodiversity in Organic Farming,” Science, 296 (2002), 1694–1697; C. Forster, et al., “Environmental Impacts of Food Production and Consumption: A Report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)” (Manchester Business School, 2006), http://www.defra.gov.uk/science/project_data/DocumentLibrary/EV02007/EV0..., accessed Oct.31, 2007; and J. Ziesemer, “Energy Use in Organic Food Systems” (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2007), http://www.fao.org/docs/eims/upload/233069/energy-use-oa.pdf, accessed Oct. 31, 2007.
9. J. Silverman and J. Schwartz, “Barbecue DVD,” American Eats (History Channel, 2006).
10. J. Cascio, “Cheeseburger Footprint” (Open the Future, 2007), http://www.openthefuture.com/ cheeseburger_CF.html, accessed Feb. 12, 2008.
11. A. Weil, “Healthy Cooking Techniques?” Dr. Weil’s Q and A Library (Weil Lifestyle, 2007), http://www.drweil.com/drw/u/id/QAA400186, accessed May 1, 2008.
12. Energy estimates were obtained directly from manufacturers when possible or through EcoSynergy estimates. Conversions to CO2 emissions were from the Energy Information Administration (2006).
13. D. Asami, et al., “Comparison of the Total Phenolic and Ascorbic Acid Content of Freeze-Dried and Air-Dried Marionberry, Strawberry, and Corn Grown Using Conventional, Organic, and Sustainable Agricultural Practices,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 51 (2003), 1237–1241.
14. If you don’t use salt with iodine, your multivitamin may do the trick. Dr. Andrew Weil suggests eating omega-3-rich fish (salmon, sardines, or mackerel), sea vegetables (like the sea shakes discussed in chapter 10), or choosing produce grown in iodine-rich soil—typically in coastal states. Less than one-half teaspoon of salt with iodine can provide the recommended daily intake of 150 micrograms of iodine. See A. Weil, “Iodine,” Dr. Weil’s Vitamin Advisor (Weil Lifestyle, 2007), http://www.drweil.com/drw/u/id/ART02872, accessed Feb. 12, 2008.
1. U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Dietary Guidelines for Americans” (2005), http://www.mypyramid.gov/guidelines/, accessed Feb. 9, 2008.
2. 1 serving = 1 slice bread, 1 cup dry cereal, 1/2 cup cooked cereal or pasta. “Three servings” is half the recommended five to ten daily servings of grains, depending on calorie needs.
3. Number of per capita miles is based on Highway Statistics 2003, U.S. Department of Transportation, http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohim/sh03/htm/ps1.htm. Fuel economy data was gathered from U.S. EPA http://www.fueleconomy.gov and used 2008 fuel economy ratings. The 2008 ratings include updated estimates, which account for more realistic driving conditions. Note that the embodied energy of the vehicle, or the energy to manufacture and service the vehicle has not been included in this analysis.
4. The CO2e emissions for the three types of automobiles assume the autos were driven 9,800 miles per year. The CO2e emissions associated with three types of diets shown (High, Average, and Low) all assume a 3,700 calorie diet, but vary in the percentage of Calories from animal products (High Diet—38 percent; Average Diet—28 percent, and Low Diet—18 percent) and the type of meat eaten (High—red meat; Average—mixture of red meat/poultry; Low—poultry only). See text for further details of these calculations.
5. Although the average American needs about 2,100 Calories per day, food waste and overeating explain the relatively large per person production of food in the United States. See Eshel and Martin (2006).
6. The number of animal Calories consumed is based on per capita food supply data from the Food and Agricultural Organization, with chicken comprising 19 percent, eggs 5 percent, milk 41 percent, beef 32 percent, and salmon 3 percent. Vegetable-based Calories were divided between potatoes (30 percent), corn (30 percent) and soybeans (12 percent). While they don’t represent the true variety of foods consumed, they serve as an estimate for the energy and carbon emissions. See Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, FAO Statistical Yearbook, (2006), http://faostat.fao.org, accessed May 1, 2008.
7. The amount of beef Calories was varied between the 540 Calories/day (high), 180 Calories/day (average) and 0 Calories/day (low; all red meat replaced by poultry).
8. Most health professionals today suggest a reduction of animal products may be good for your health. Many studies have shown that high consumption of red meat may be a risk factor in major diseases such as obesity, some cancers, hypertension or heart disease. For example, A. Cross, et al. “A Prospective Study of Red and Processed Meat Intake in Relation to Cancer Risk,” Public Library of Science Journal PLoS Medicine, 4 (Dec. 2007), e325.
9. “Whole Grains Gain Health Claim,” Food Product Design (Sept. 1999), 24.
10. L. M. Crawford, “Speech before Whole Grains and Health: A Global Summit,” (Food and Drug Administration, 2005), http://www.fda.gov/oc/speeches/2005/wholegrains0520.html, accessed Feb. 9, 2008.
1. H. McGee, On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen, rev. ed. (New York: Scribner, 2004).
2. J. Wakefield, “UVM Launches Cheese Artisan Institute with $500,000 from Sen. Jeffords, John Merck Fund, Private Donor” (University of Vermont, 2004), http://www.uvm.edu/employees/?Page=News&storyID=5113, accessed Feb. 11, 2008.
3. B. Cox, “USDA Establishes Grass (Forage) Fed Marketing Claim Standard,” AMS News Release (Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA, 2007), http://www.ams.usda.gov/news/178-07.htm, accessed Feb. 11, 2008.
4. J. Robinson, “Health Benefits of Grass-Fed Products,” Eatwild.com (2007), http://www.eatwild.com/healthbenefits.htm; accessed Feb. 11, 2008.
5. Sustainable Table, “The Issues: Pasture-Raised,” (2007), http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/pasture/, accessed Feb. 11, 2008.
6. A. Collins and R. Fairchild, “Sustainable Food Consumption at a Sub-National Level: An Ecological Footprint, Nutritional and Economic Analysis,” Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, 9 (Mar. 2007), 5–30.
7. R. Conniff, “Counting Carbons,” Discover (Aug. 2005), 54–61.
8. National Honey Board, “Honey Is Not All the Same,” Honey Locator (National Honey Board, 2008), www.honeylocator.com, accessed Feb. 11, 2008.
9. Earth Talk, “What Is Causing the Dramatic Decline in Honeybee Populations in the U.S. and Elsewhere in Recent Years?” Health News Digest (2007), http://healthnewsdigest.com/news/Environment_380/
What_is_Causing_the_Dramatic_Decline_in_Honeybee_Populations_in_the_U_S_and_Elsewhere_in_Recent_Years.shtml, accessed Feb. 11, 2008.
11. D. Cruickshank, “Bee-sotted by the Goings on in the Bee Port, Otherwise Known as Hive,” San Francisco Chronicle Magazine (July 1, 2007), 8.
12. V . Eyring, et al., “Multimodel Projections of Stratospheric Ozone in the 21st Century,” Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 112 (Aug. 2007), D16303 (article number).
13. For a good review of the current status of the ozone layer, see the most recent version of the World Meteorological Organization/United Nations Environment Programme’s Ozone Assessment (2006). The “Twenty Questions and Answers” section provides a relatively quick update and details can be found in the report. Connections between global warming and ozone depletion are addressed particularly in chapter 5: Climate Ozone Connections, http://www.wmo.ch/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ozone_2006/ozone_asst_report.html. For a shorter review of ozone changes in the coming decades, see A. Tabazadeh and E. C. Cordero, “New Directions: Stratospheric Ozone Recovery in a Changing Atmosphere,” Atmospheric Environment, 38 (2004), 647–49.
14. Collins and Fairchild (2007).